Instead of creating a flat-Earth “global energy budget” such as those which the field of climate science is entirely based upon, as in the figure below, I have created (and updated) a new global energy budget which is instead called “Earth’s Thermodynamic Energy Budget”. This distinction in labels makes all the difference in the world. A question to the reader: Can the mathematics and physics developed for flat Earth theory be empirically or theoretically valid?
In climate science, their mathematics of flat Earth theory works out to that sunlight cannot heat anything on the Earth to temperatures above -18 degrees Celsius. If atmospheric absorption and scattering of incoming sunlight is taken into account on their flat Earth theory, then this maximum-heating-temperature of sunlight reduces to -40 degrees Celsius (bottom right diagram of above figure). To make up for the Sun not being able to create the weather or sustain the climate with such an incredibly low heating potential of its light spread over the entire flat Earth, then climate science invents ad-hoc mathematics where this feeble solar heating is reversed and recycled two-times-over to make up the difference, and they call this ad-hoc scheme “the greenhouse effect” even though it isn’t how an actual real greenhouse functions or why real greenhouses get so warm inside.
The definition of ad-hoc is “created for the purpose.” So to be clear, the climate science heat-recycling greenhouse effect is created for the purpose of flat Earth theory, where the mathematics of flat Earth theory dictated that the Sun must not heat the Earth to temperatures above -40 degrees Celsius. Thus, their flat-Earth heat-recycling “greenhouse effect” was created for the purpose of “explaining” higher temperatures and meteorological and climatological phenomena which occur above -40 degrees Celsius. This is flat Earth theory being mathematically developed into modern science.
A well-known example of ad-hoc mathematics being inserted into science was with Albert Einstein and his theory of relativity. When Einstein first solved his equations for relativity he realized that they indicated that the universe should either be expanding or contracting. And thus to satisfy consensus thinking at the time period, and his own agreement with the consensus, he inserted ad-hoc terms into his equations for the purpose of making his theory satisfy a universe that the consensus believed should be static and unchanging in size. Many years later Einstein admitted that this ad-hoc mathematical trick was the greatest blunder of his life, and his equations had these extra terms removed.
Do you wonder if today’s scientists will one day realize the blunder of the ad-hoc mathematics they created which they call a “greenhouse effect”, in order to satisfy their consensus belief that sunshine cannot heat the planet to above -40 degrees Celsius, via their consensus belief that the Earth can be mathematically modeled as flat? These are clearly obvious blunders to any thinking person…but we must wait for the scientific consensus to catch up to us and to adopt spherical-Earth theory as we intellectuals have.
In the thermodynamics textbook by D.V. Schroeder (2000), on page 17 we read:
“Much of thermodynamics deals with three closely related concepts: temperature, energy, and heat. Much of students’ difficulty with thermodynamics comes from confusing these three concepts with each other.”
It could be said that the entire enterprise of thermodynamic theory is about defining these three concepts and distinguishing them from one another. The distinctions are in fact the most important possible thing in physics and in science, not to mention in all engineering, technology, electricity production, industry, computers…and literally everything we now take for-granted in our modern world. Indeed even in the pre-technological world, although we might not have known it, our campfires and our fire-making ability of rubbing sticks together is all about how these three concepts interrelate to each other.
For example: temperature is not a measure of an object’s total internal thermal energy with respect to another object; the energy of a body cannot be changed without supplying the body with heat (or work), but energy is not always heat; heat is a transient form of energy found only at a boundary between objects, and only exists moving from hot to cold.
This is just the barest of basics, but even these simple preliminary distinctions hint at profound differences in the physics and mathematics which explain them. It took scientists upwards of two-hundred years(!) to figure it all out, and once they did it created the industrial and technological revolution which followed in the 20th Century. We really needed to understand the subtleties involved with these concepts before we could start engineering things to produce useful modern technology. It’s kinda a big deal!
Before proceeding with showing you the new diagram, we should review some definitions and descriptions of the concept of heat which I’ve gathered from several textbook sources:
“Heat is defined as any spontaneous flow of energy from one object to another caused by a difference in temperature between the objects. We say that “heat” flows from a warm radiator into a cold room, from hot water into a cold ice cube, and from the hot Sun to the cool Earth. The mechanism may be different in each case, but in each of these processes the energy transferred is called “heat”.”
– Thermal Physics, Schroeder (2000)
“If a physical process increases the total entropy of the universe, that process cannot happen in reverse since this would violate the second law of thermodynamics. Processes that create new entropy are therefore said to be irreversible. […]
“Perhaps the most important type of thermodynamic process is the flow of heat from a hot object to a cold one. We saw […] that this process occurs because the total multiplicity of the combined system thereby increases; hence the total entropy increases also, and heat flow is always irreversible. […]
“Most of the process we observe in life involve large entropy increases are therefore highly irreversible: sunlight warming the Earth […].”
– Thermal Physics, Schroeder (2000)
“Heat is defined as the form of energy that is transferred across a boundary by virtue of a temperature difference or temperature gradient. Implied in this definition is the very important fact that a body never contains heat, but that heat is identified as heat only as it crosses the boundary. Thus, heat is a transient phenomenon. If we consider the hot block of copper as a system and the cold water in the beaker as another system, we recognize that originally neither system contains any heat (they do contain energy, of course.) When the copper is placed in the water and the two are in thermal communication, heat is transferred from the copper to the water, until equilibrium of temperature is established. At that point we no longer have heat transfer, since there is no temperature difference. Neither of the systems contains any heat at the conclusion of the process. It also follows that heat is identified at the boundaries of the system, for heat is defined as energy being transferred across the system boundary.”
– Thermodynamics, Wylen (1960)
“The temperature of a body alone is what determines whether heat will be transferred from it to another body with which it is in contact or vice versa. A large block of ice at 00C has far more internal energy than a cup of hot water; yet when the water is poured on the ice some of the ice melts and the water becomes cooler, which signifies that energy has passed from the water to the ice.
“When the temperature of a body increases, it is customary to say that heat has been added to it; when the temperature decreases, it is customary to say that heat has been removed from it. When no work is done, ΔU = Q, which says that the internal energy change of the body is equal to the heat transferred to it from the surroundings. One definition of heat is:
Heat is energy transferred across the boundary of a system as a result of a temperature difference only.”
– Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics, Carter (2001)
“How and why does heat energy flow? In other words, we need an expression for the dependence of the flow of heat energy on the temperature field. First we summarize certain qualitative properties of heat flow with which we are all familiar:
- If the temperature is constant in a region, no heat energy flows.
- If there are temperature differences, the heat energy flows from the hotter region to the colder region.”
– Elementary Applied Partial Differential Equations, Haberman (1998)
If any readers have their own quotations which they’ve found during their own research which delineate similar distinctions as these quotations, please submit them in the comments and I will update the list above. This list can serve as reference source material when the usual need arises to correct climate-alarmist pseudoscientists and others who believe in the non-existent and impossible flat-Earth climate science greenhouse effect. Be sure to remember that radiative heat transfer follows these rules along with the other physical modes of heat transfer (conduction, diffusion, convection).
Given the importance in science and thermodynamics of the distinctions between energy, heat, and temperature, then should we not create a budget of Earth’s energy inputs and outputs in terms consistent with thermodynamics? Or if that sounds too technical, shouldn’t we at least create a model of the Earth which is not flat, and which corresponds with empirical physical reality? And most importantly, shouldn’t the thermodynamic energy budget model abide by the rules of heat transfer such that heat only flows in one direction and where heat is not reversible or recycled as is done in the scientific consensus flat-Earth climate science version?
Thus I present to you Earth’s Thermodynamic Energy Budget:
The current consensus opinion in science is that flat Earth theory can be used to model the Earth and its energy inputs and outputs, where sunlight falls in a vastly-diluted manner over the entire flat Earth surface at once as an input. They believe that such flat Earth theory is a valid “average” of the Earth. Of course, the true average manner in which sunlight enters and interacts with the Earth is as sunlight falling onto only a hemisphere of the globe at any and at all times. That is, the physics and mathematics by which sunlight interacts with and enters the Earth’s system is as sunlight falling onto a hemisphere. Most of us intellectuals know this, but scientists are still catching up to the fact that this has important mathematical and physical consequences.
The potential of solar heating just before sunlight falls onto the Earth, the power of sunlight at Earth’s distance from the Sun, is +1210C! That is very powerful. When this sunlight falls onto the day-side hemisphere, and after accounting for reflective losses, sunlight still has a potential of +880C heating to plus or minus 26 degrees latitude away from the point directly underneath the Sun and in longitudinal rotation towards and away from that point. Over the entire hemisphere sunlight has a potential heating of +300C. This heat from sunlight provides all of the thermodynamic power required to directly create the physical meteorological responses we call weather, and sustains the climate over the long term.
Consider a towering cumulonimbus cloud which is thousands upon thousands of tons of water vapor raised to thirty-thousand feet in altitude above the surface – the power of the Sun did that! It requires high-temperature high-intensity power to do that which can only come from the Sun in the first place. The scientific consensus’ flat Earth theory sunlight of only -400C could never perform this feat…let alone even melting ice into water, or doing much else.
Don’t you think that it is important to understand this about the Sun and sunlight falling on the Earth? Most scientists do not think so, given over as they are to the consensus belief that the Earth can be modeled as flat and thereby that sunlight is no more powerful at heating the Earth than -400C. The Sun creates these meteorological and climatological effects…not the ad-hoc and false “greenhouse effect” which they’ve created for the purpose of attempting to make flat Earth theory appear more valid.
In the top-right of the Thermodynamic Energy Budget diagram we see the derivation and equation of the lapse rate found in the troposphere, i.e. in the part of the atmosphere where climatological and meteorological effects reside and which contains the vast majority of the mass of the atmosphere. This equation, and its empirically-measured value which matches the equation when factored for the presence of water vapor, all by itself demonstrates that the ad-hoc “greenhouse effect” doesn’t exist given that if it did exist then the value of that lapse rate would have to be enhanced.
In the figure below we see a comparison between the Thermodynamic Energy Budget of the Earth and the scientific consensus non-thermodynamic flat Earth theory energy budget of the Earth. There are really important differences between these energy budgets, because one of them represents the Earth and sunlight as they actually empirically physically interact in accordance with thermodynamic theory, and the other one presents an arbitrary ad-hoc mathematical scheme to correct for the errors of flat Earth theory while being based in flat Earth theory. Only the world’s greatest intellectuals are capable of comprehending this comparison and understanding its value and implications. Are you one of the world’s leading intellectuals? You are if you can confidently state that you think that there is an important scientific and mathematical difference between flat Earth theory and round-Earth theory; this would place you well beyond the intellectualism of the scientific consensus and most of academia.
It is going to require immense effort on the part of intellectuals to correct the scientific consensus’ acceptance of flat Earth theory in climate science. We have already witnessed previously that the scientific peer-review process in physics and in meteorology journals will reject scientific papers which attempt to explain, as in this blog post, that the shape of the Earth together with the power of sunlight is an important consideration when mathematically modelling the Earth and understanding the creation and the sustaining of its climate. Only the power of true and the highest standards of intellectualism can detect that there is a problem with climate political science alarm’s flat Earth theory. I know that most of you reading are of such a high caliber of mind; if science disallows us from submitting scientific papers which explain the errors of flat Earth theory, and if media companies and government conspire to prevent the intellectual free-speech of truth on this matter, then, what are we to do?
We will not be ruled over and lorded over and lectured about our intelligence and lifestyle by those who believe in flat Earth theory.